One of the first questions people ask is, “Can humans get parvo?” Let’s delve into the scary world of parvo to get the answers to this and many of your other questions.
We’ve only experienced parvo once on the farm and that was enough to last a lifetime. We had taken in a dog belonging to a relative. She had been kept in poor conditions and, unknown to us, was carrying parvo.
Fortunately, the dogs we had were healthy and able to survive but it was touch and go. Parvo is a heartbreaking disease and has many strains among living creatures, even humans.
What is parvo?
Parvo is a virus. Sounds innocent enough, right? Wrong. Parvo is among the smallest viruses known to man but it brings death more often than not to the animals who contract it.
A brief history of the disease will help us understand it a little better. We won’t delve into the all the various strands of parvovirus because there are just too many.
In 1967, what is known as CPV-1 was discovered. Eleven years later another strain was noted called CPV-2 which is thought to be a mutation of the parvovirus in cats called feline panleukopenia.
CPV-2 affects all canines: wolves, coyotes, foxes, and dogs, etc. The CPV-2 strain has been broken down into CPV-2a, CPV-2b, and the most common CPV-2C. Scary I know to realize there are so many strains but the treatments and actions of them are pretty much the same. There are microscopic differences in the virus chains so the science makes it seem more confusing.
Right out of the box someone will say, “There’s a vaccine for it.” Yes, there is, but as our vet told us, “As with all vaccinations, it doesn’t guarantee protection. For some, it seems to make a difference but dogs which are vaccinated still develop parvo about 50% of the time. This doesn’t even take into consideration the side effects and other health issues related to vaccines.” Our dogs were vaccinated and they still got it.
Parvo is highly contagious but the strains don’t cross. A human can’t catch parvo from a dog, a cat can’t catch parvo from a mouse, chickens can’t catch it from a pig…you see where I’m going with this, right?
It manifests itself in two forms. Most often it’s the gastrointestinal tract which is affected: vomiting, diarrhea, no appetite, weight loss, dehydration, and lethargy.
The least common manifestation is in the cardiac system. In this form, the virus attacks the heart muscle which will lead to death. This is usually only seen in puppies.
Puppies and elderly dogs are the most susceptible to parvovirus. Dogs living in unclean housing and who have weakened immune systems are susceptible as well. There is no known cure for parvo.
How does parvo spread?
Like all viruses, parvo must have a living host. When an animal comes in contact with the vomit or feces of an animal infected with its relative strain, it is exposed.
When an uninfected dog sniffs or walks on vomit or feces of an infected dog or even on the ground where the virus lives because the vomit or feces has been there, the virus is transmitted.
This means if you are walking your dog in an area where parvo is in the ground…yeah, it’s scary. Once a dog is exposed it can carry the virus for 2-3 weeks and expel it in its normal poop even if it doesn’t become sick. There is an incubation period after exposure of 3-10 days.
You can also bring the virus to our homestead or dog on your shoes if you walk through an infected area. The harsh reality is that the virus lives in the soil for up to one year. It is virulent.
Once the vomit or feces has decayed leaving the virus in the soil, transmission isn’t as simple as your dog padding over the area. Your dog would have to lay on or scratch up the soil to allow time for transmission. At least this is the current thinking.
Since dogs are in the same family as the wolf, coyote, and fox, your homestead dog can be exposed by an infected critter crossing your farm and leaving the virus behind. Even the best farm dogs can be exposed and carry the disease. Knowing the signs of parvo will lead to early intervention on your part.
Good hygiene and environmental management is key to prevention. As a homesteader or pet owner, if you walk through an area where the risk of being exposed to parvo exists, you should be careful to wash your hands and remove your shoes or clean the soles of them before petting or caring for any pets or livestock.
Cleaning an Area Exposed to Parvo
Most cleaning products can’t kill parvo. If you have to clean an area exposed to the virus, pick up the feces or vomit using gloves and dispose of it in the trash or burn it. I would recommend burning it.
Clean the area with a 1:1 solution of white vinegar or apple cider vinegar and hydrogen peroxide or a 1:1 solution of bleach and water. These are the widely-recognized cleaners to kill the virus.
For carpets and furniture, it’s recommended to use a steam cleaner and run it on the hottest setting. Use vinegar in the water if possible.
Remember, freezing or extreme heat in outdoor conditions doesn’t kill the virus in the soil or on surfaces. Parvovirus can live outside a host for up to a year so don’t think old poop or vomit is safe for your dog to investigate.
Exposure to direct sunlight can kill the virus but it takes a long period of time and other weather conditions affect the rate of destruction so it can’t be counted on.
I’m told extended exposure to temperatures of 140 degrees F or higher will kill the virus after 10 hours but this is in a lab not out in the real world of grass, dirt, and weather.
Cleaning up outdoors is incredibly difficult but here are a few tips:
1) Be sure the area receives plenty of sunlight. This may mean cutting back shrubs or trees to allow exposure.
2) Keep the grass cut short and water thoroughly to help get the virus below the topsoil surface.
3) Remove and destroy (I would burn it) any bedding or trash exposed to the virus.
4) Add a fresh layer of topsoil or sand to the area. Be sure it’s at least 2 inches deep for best coverage. If you are adding it to an existing lawn or some area you don’t want the grass smothered, add the layers ½ inch at a time.
How long does parvo last?
The answer to this question depends on a couple of things like how healthy your dog is, his diet because this directly affects the immune system, and the severity of the infection. A week to 10 days is normal for the symptoms. If the dog survives the first three days, the survival rate increases.
Sadly, the survival rate of parvovirus is 50/50 if untreated. With veterinarian care, which is expensive, the survival rate is on average 75%. Your dog will stay at the clinic for about a week during the initial stages.
If a puppy is treated immediately and survives the first couple of days, he should be fully recovered in about a week. Older dogs have a little longer recovery time. If they survive the first couple of days they should be fully recovered in 10-14 days.
What are the signs and symptoms of parvo?
Like we already talked about, the parvovirus has an incubation period of three to ten days so you may not see any symptoms when your dog is first exposed. The symptoms will vary from dog to dog based on their general health and ferocity of the virus.
The first symptom you may see is lethargy. Your active dog may only lay around and sleep, it may barely be able to lift its head. They will probably run a fever and won’t eat.
You’ll probably see vomit next and then loose smelly diarrhea, probably with blood in it. This is the beginning of the rapid dehydration as the intestinal parvovirus damages the lining of the intestinal tract. The results can be sepsis, infection, anemia, and death.
How is Parvovirus Diagnosed?
Most often parvo can be diagnosed by observation but the vet will be able to confirm it with a lab test.
ELISA (enzyme lined immunosorbent assay) is the standard test for parvo even though it’s not 100% accurate. A stool sample is used for testing your dog for parvo no matter which tests your vet runs. They may also do a blood test to check for a low white blood cell count to confirm their suspicions.
Treatment Options and Tips For Parvo
There is no medication to cure parvo. The only treatment is to help the dog survive the symptoms. Knowing the signs of parvo can ensure treatment begins quickly.
Keeping the dog hydrated is the number one priority. If you take your dog to a vet, he’ll start an IV. If you choose to treat your dog at home, you can use a syringe or an enema to keep fluid levels up.
You should not feed your dog while it’s battling parvo.
Keeping your dog warm to maintain a stable body temperature is important as well.
At the vet, your dog may or may not receive antibiotics since they aren’t proven to help in any definitive way. He will receive injections to help with pain relief, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
In extreme cases, your vet may recommend a blood transfusion. All of these choices are based on your beliefs, money situation, and farming practices. No one can make the decision for you or judge you in your decision. No one else is in your shoes or knows your situation.
We don’t usually use veterinary or even physician care. This is a decision we have made for our lives and the lives of those entrusted to us. Can I say that if my Roxie came down with parvo I wouldn’t take her to the vet? I don’t know, I’m not in the situation. Often, we don’t know what we would do until we have to do it.
There are a few over the counter meds which say they are helpful in treating parvo and you can get them at the local farm supply. I can’t tell you if they work or don’t work. Some people say they worked for them while others say they didn’t. I believe it all goes back to the general health of the animal.
Sometimes doing something is more important for the human psyche than for the dog. Parvo is far more complicated than treating a dog paw or pad injury.
Home Treatment of Parvo
Since the vet bill for the treatment of parvo can range from a few hundred dollars upwards of $7,000, many people choose to ride out the parvo storm at home.
One of the first treatments people use at home is Parvaid and colloidal silver. The thing to know about this is hourly doses are usually required. This means having more than one person or days of lack of sleep. The medicine can be given by dropper or enema.
When treating your dog at home, it’s probably a good idea to keep track of when and how you gave the last dose. I’m a list keeper so this is a natural thing for me to do, but it will help you keep track of what you need to do and when to do it.
Once recovery is underway, offer a bland diet and plenty of water. Keep the meals to small amounts spread out over the day. Some people like to give Pedialyte but we prefer ACV water.
Just like the vet, you’re only giving palliative care and hoping for the best. The vet may be better setup with IVs and such but many vets will help you care for your pet at home so you can save money especially since there’s such a high risk the dog will not make it no matter what you do.
Predicted Costs of Parvo Treatments
There are a few experimental treatments such as parvoOne. They average $75 a dose with multiple doses required depending on the severity of the case and size of the dog. This can add up quickly and they’re only experimental.
To have the dog seen to by the vet, you’re looking at a national average of 10 days and $5,000. This cost will vary depending on your vet, your area, the length of stay, and the treatment options you choose. The fees can go as high as $10,000 according to VetMed.com
A Brief Summary of What to Expect With Parvovirus
1) Parvo vaccination is recommended but is no guarantee of prevention.
2) Once a dog has had parvo, it has immunity for life.
3) Signs/symptoms of Parvo
Lethargy, fever, loss of appetite, not drinking, vomiting and diarrhea
4) What’s happening to your dog
A simple explanation of what’s happening inside your dog’s body is the destruction of the cells inside the intestines with intestinal parvo and in the heart muscle with cardiac parvo. The bone marrow of your pet is being attacked as well.
5) Parvo Recovery
Ensuring a healthy immune system in your pet at all times is the best thing you can do to ensure the survival rate. Once you see signs of recovery, you can know your pet will survive.
They will probably continue to experience nausea and some diarrhea for a week or so as they improve but once recovery starts they’ll survive. Depending on the dog, full recovery can take a month to two months from the time symptoms stop.
Your dog will be hungry and thirsty. Be careful to ensure they take it slow. Start out with bland soft foods in frequent, small servings. He can have all the water he would like. I would add raw, organic apple cider vinegar to his water – 1 teaspoon to a ½ gallon of water to build his immune system and boost his gut health.
If you’ve taken your pet to a vet, you may be sent home with an antibiotic for it to take.
Keep your pet warm and comfortable avoiding any stressful situation until fully recovered. Keep him clean and dry as well from any vomit or diarrhea.
6) Disinfecting your home
Household cleaners will not kill parvovirus. Recommended cleaning solutions are a 1:1 bleach and water solution or a 1:1 vinegar (white or apple cider) and hydrogen peroxide solution for surfaces.
For carpets and upholstery, use a steam clean on the hottest setting with vinegar in the water tank.
7) How long before it’s safe to bring a new dog into the home
Your recovering pet will be infectious to other dogs for 4-6 weeks so keep him from public places or other dogs. This protects other dogs from the infection and your recovering dog as well. With a weakened immune system, the risk of catching something else is high for a recovering dog.
Once your dog has had parvo, it cannot contract the disease again. It will have lifetime immunity that’s a little bit of good news.
Livestock guardian dogs are at high risk because of the nature of their jobs. They patrol areas where predators such as wolves and coyotes pass through possibly leaving the virus behind.
If you are planning to add a new dog to your pack, you should wait until your recovered dog has been its old self for 6 months. This is considered a safe time period by most vets although some say wait a full year to ensure the destruction of the virus.
I hope you never have to deal with parvovirus on your homestead and if you have I hope you never have to again. It’s devastating.
Remember, the decision you make about taking your dog to the vet or helping it through on your own is yours to make. Your financial situation, personal beliefs, experience and skill level and usual farm practices all come into play and they are all personal.
Have you had to deal with parvo? What did you do? Do you have experience or tips to share with us?
Safe and Happy Journey,
Rhonda and The Pack